William Shipman is chairman of CarriageOaks Partners LLC, a consulting firm that specializes in retirement finance. An advocate of Social Security reform, he is co-author of Promises to Keep: Saving Social Security’s Dream; he has testified before Congress on this topic. He is co-chairman of the Cato Project on Social Security Choice and was on the advisory board of Americans Discuss Social Security, a non-profit organization funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts to generate informed debate on the issue. His research has been published in academic journals and by the National Center for Policy Analysis, The Heritage Foundation, and the Cato Institute. Before establishing CarriageOaks, he spent more than 30 years in institutional financial research, consulting, and investment management. He was a principal of State Street Global Advisors, a trustee of the SSgA Funds, a founding partner of H. C. Wainwright Co. Economics, and a general partner of H. C. Wainwright & Co.